We know that if our seborrheic keratosis growths have a look similar with skin cancer, the doctor can make us a biopsy. This term may sound a bit strange, but in fact the biopsy is just a sample of tissue from the body that is examined in the laboratory. Tissue examined microscopically help the doctor confirm a diagnosis. In some cases, sampling is enough just scratching the surface (this occurs, for example in seborrheic keratosis). Anyway, the biopsy may be done for other investigation not only for those of the skin. We will talk about all types of biopsies, but let’s start with skin biopsy.
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When there are changes in the skin structures that requires further examination, achieving a biopsy is required in some cases, especially when the dermatologist think that you may have skin cancer. In this case, he wil use a local anesthetic cream (applied one hour before “surgery”) and will take you a small sample of the skin. The sample will be removed with a special device and the procedure is not painfull at all. Then, the layers of the skin will be examined by the doctor, and after that he will be able to put you a diagnosis. The procedure may leave you a very small scar, invisible sometimes. Depending on skin biopsy results, the patient will be kept under observation until the wound is fully healed.
Liver biopsy is usually recommended to be sure about diagnoses like as cirrhosis, hepatitis or liver cancer. During the biopsy, the patient will stay on his left shoulder with the right hand under the head. It is very important to keep this position until the final of the investigation. For liver biopsy the doctor will use a local anesthetic. The needle is guided between two ribs to the surface of the liver and that is the place where the doctor will take sample of tissue.
This type of biopsy is usually done to examine the uterine lining when the woman have irregular menstrual periods or abnormal vaginal bleeding. This is usually sign a hormonal disorde, resulting in the formation of polyps or a tumor development.
There are a few ways to performa an endometrial biopsy:
- Dilation and curettage – is a common procedure in gynecology, although lately has been replaced with modern methods of hysteroscopy. Dilation and curettage biopsy is performed under general anesthesia. The cervix is opened gradually introducing dilator. They are initially small, but grow in size until the cervix is dilated enough to allow the insertion of a curette – used to obtain a sample of the uterine lining.
- Hysteroscopy – allows visualization of the uterus (the uterine lining) by means of an instrument called a hysteroscope (a tube optical fiber, very thin, with a light source at the end, connected to a video unit). Biopsy in direct visibility conditions can be done through the introduction of a forceps into the uterus. Usually, this procedure is performed under local anesthesia, but in some cases it does and under general anesthesia.
- Other methods – and other methods have been developed that allow the collection of a sample of tissue from the uterine lining without anesthesia in outpatient clinics. Commonly used is the method that requires a flexible device, similar to a piston through which the doctor extracts a sample of the uterine lining for biopsy.
Prostate biopsy is required if your doctor finds an abnormality during digital examination of the prostate (digital rectal examination). Also, for an accurate assessment or if blood tests show an elevated prostate specific antigen may be recommended a transrectal ultrasound of the prostate. The procedure will take place in hospital without anesthesia.
Patients taking blood-thinning substances (aspirin or warfarin) should stop taking them because of the risk of massive bleeding. Antibiotics will be given to remove the risk of an infection.
During the biopsy, the patient lying on one side with knees bent and feet drawn towards the chest. If you find any fault in that area will yield a The sample of tissue. The patient may feel tingling short and sharp because sampling fragments (usually take 16 of these samples, four in each quadrant of the gland) will be done using a needle without ultrasound guidance. Your doctor will use your finger to guide the needle into the abnormal area and make more harvest biopsy (one after another). After the procedure, the patient may experience discomfort for a short period of time, and may urinate blood for several days.
Biopsy of bone marrow
Bone marrow biopsy is usually used to diagnose the diseases of the bone marrow like blood disease or different diseases of the lymphatic system. Biopsy sample will performed the top of the hip (point called the iliac crest), and on the sternum. For this procedure the doctor will use a local anesthesia. A very strong needle will be inserted through the outer skin and the bone until it reaches the bone marrow. Attach a syringe needle and will end bone marrow aspirate (fine needle aspiration). Samples will be examined by your doctor under the microscope.
Breast biopsy is asked when a clinical examination, ultrasound exam or mammography, show us the possibility of tumor or ofa lump in the breast. The biopsy will show us exactly if it is a malignancy or benign. The method is called fine needle aspiration biopsy uses a hypodermic needle that will be inserted through the skin. The method will be under ultrasound guidance. There is another available option, the surgical biopsy if the lump removal is required.
Small bowel biopsy
Often, there it is no way to examine the central part of the small intestine by endoscope and in such cases,the doctor will use a capsule for biopsy. The patient will swallow the capsule (the capsule will beconnected to a thin tube) and will do a scan to ensure that the capsule has reached the jejunum. When the capsule reaches the right place in your body the doctor will create a partial pressure for the extraction tube (he will use a syringe connected to other end of the sample they needed). In this way, a very small piece of intestine mucosa is absorbed into the capsule. The sample is enclosed in the capsule membrane and is held at the top of the tube so that it can be examined. The technique is very useful for investigating the small intestine especially in patients who suffer from celiac disease.
Renal biopsy may be needed to diagnose some tumors or organs where inflammation. This can be used to monitor kidney after transplant surgery. The kidneys are located in the upper abdominal cavity, behind, below the diaphragm. Biopsy sample will yield back (except kidney transplant situation) with a hollow needle enters the skin and muscle tissue to the kidneys where it will get a small sample of tissue. The patient is asked to hold their breath for a short time during the procedure to prevent kidney along with the diaphragm movement.
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